Japanese made easy!

 

                           

 

Particles!!!

 

What are particles?

          Dust in the air! duh...

 

!no no no!

 

^O^; Don’t fool around I’m teaching here!

 

Particles are  little Japanese words that link words together that makes a sentence make sense.

 

wa(ha), ga, no, ni, de, to, mo,

ya, yo, o(wo),e(he), ka, ne/nee, ze/zo

 

If I write "ha" instead of "wa" its a habit.. it means the same thing though. 

 

Understanding these particles will help you form sentences.

I will describe the particles as fully as I can.

 

*If you feel everything isn't translated completely, it's because the word was already defined on the page, or it's obvious. Look again!

 

When learning particles don't worry about the words you don't know of the tenses etc.  Just be concerned on getting a feel for them.  If there is anything you want be to explain, please email me. 

 

 
 

       wa

 

Wa marks the topic.  It always comes after the topic.

 

I like to think of wa as "is/am" etc.

It doesn't always work, but it's a huge help to think of it this way. 

 

 

Remember when I was telling you how to introduce yourself? 

In "greetings and introductions" I used "wa"

 

Watashi wa Sakura desu. 

This means, " I am Sakura"

 

 Onamae wa nan desu ka? -What is your name?

Onamae- Namenanwhat

 



                                                                   ga

 
Ga indicates "active" subjects

 

 mimi ga itai desu- ear is hurting

 

 Object + ga + verb

 

"ga" indicates that the ear is hurting 

 

Often it seems that ga and wa can go in the same place. what happens then?

  

Questions words only work with ga, not wa

 
       nan/nani- what
itsu - when
   doko - where
                 dochira- which, who
dare - who 
 dore - which
  dono- which
                donna- what kind of
 
 Nani ga arimasu ka? - what is there?
 
 
 

      no

 

This word is easy, is shows possession, or to have a word describe another.

 

Watashi no neko desu - my cat

 

watashi- watashi no - my     neko - cat

 

This shows that i own the cat.

 

neko no hon desu - a book about cats

 

hon- book    neko - cat 

 

The word "neko" describes what kind of hon it is. 

 

Describing word + no + word being described

 

 

 

 

            ni

 

Ni is a location marker it tells  where something is, where something may go etc.

 

ex. Gakkou ni ikimasu               Inu wa soto ni imasu 

       I will go to school.              The dog "is" outside.

 

inu - dog      soto - outside   imasu - residing

 

 

Also ni  can mark an indirect object.

 

ex. hanako san ni denwa shimashita

          (I) called Ms Hanako on the phone. 

 

denwa shimashita - called one the phone
 
 
Indicating time and day
 
hachi ji ni nemashjita - I went to sleep at 8 O'clock
 
ji - hour      hachi - 8     nemashita - went to bed 
 
kinyoubi ni gakkou ga arimasen - I have no school on friday.
 
Kinyoubi - friday   arimasen - not having 
 
 
 
 

        de 

  

De tell where something takes place.
 
heya de benkyou shimashita - (I) studied in (my) bedroom.
 
benkyou shimashita - studied      heya - bedroom
 

 koen de e o kakimashita - (I) drew a picture at the park

Koen - park      kakimashita - drew    e - picture 

 

De marks the means of doing something 

kuruma de gakkou ni ikimashita

I went to school by car

 kuruma - car

 

 

      to
 
"To" is used to link two words together, like "and".  Although in English to list things,
we would use commas but in Japanese "to" is needed to connect each word.       |
                                                                                                                                                                   |
                                                                                                                                                     |      
                              "Watashi no okaasan to otousan" - My mom and dad                  |
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         |
     Watashi wa okaasan to otousan to sakura  to syaoran to issho ni ikimasu. -    |
                          I'm going with mom, dad, Sakura and Syaoran. <----------------------'
 
Ikimasu - to go/going
 
"To" was used with issho meaing "with" which is another use of it. 
 
Sakura to issho gakkou ni ikimasu. -  I'm going to school with Sakura. 
 
Acually the issho may not even be needed...
 
Sakura to gakkou ni ikmasu 
 
 

 

       mo 
 
"mo" means "also/aswell/to"
 
ex.  If :Watashi wa neko desu- I am a cat
 
       Then: Watashi mo neko desu- I am also a cat
 
ex. Watashi mo ikimasu- I'm going too
 
Only use "mo" after someone states a fact, and  it's true for you too.

               

    yo

Yo is used at the end of a sentence, it is used while responding to questions,

give new information, and to emphasize something.

Ex. Gakusei desu ka?- Are you a student?

 Hai, gakusei desu yo  - yes, I am a student.

 
Watashi wa nihon ni ikimashita yo - I went to Japan!

                                                        Nihon- Japan  ikimashita - went                

ya
 
  ya is used to link two words, when listing 2 or more things, it kinda means "etc",
"of the sort".  Not all objects need to be listed when using "ya".  It means
more than "and", and  it's fundamentally different than "to".
 
if: Heya ni nani ga arimasu ka? what do you have in your room
 
then: beddo ya tsukue ya hondana ya nezumi no petto -
A bed, desk, bookshelf, and a pet mouse etc.  
 
tsukue - desk   hondana - bookself    nezumi - mouse 
heya - room   nani - what   
 
Ex. Watashi wa anime ya manga ya hon ya gakkou ga suki desu
 
hon - book,    gakkou- school,  suki- to like
 
I like anime, mangas, books, and school. 
 
 
 
                O (wo)
 
O marks the direct object.
 
object plus o plus verb 
 
Ongaku o kikimashita - (I) listened to music 
 
 ongaku - music   kikimashita - listened to
 
gohan o tabemashita - (I)ate rice 
 
gohan - rice  tabemashita - ate  
 
 
 
                            E(he)                                 <--I made this
 
 E marks direction and sometimes can be interchangeable with ni when indicating a location or to somewhere. 
 
Tomodachi e tegami o kakimashita-
I wrote a letter to my friend 
 
tomodachi - friend   tegami - letter   kakimashita - wrote
 
Nihon e ikimasu - I'm going to Japan 
 
nihon - Japan 
 
 
  
    Ka
 

Ka is a particle that comes at the end of a sentence to make it a question.

Watashi wa neko desu ka? - Am I a cat?

Watashi - I   Neko  - cat 

 gakkou wa tanoshii desu ka? - Is school fun?

Gakkou - School   Tanoshii - Fun 

 
 
 
 ne/nee
 
"ne" comes at the end of a sentence and isused to confirm things,
or said to see if someone agrees with you.
 
Sakana ha takai ne - Fish is expensive isn't it 
Sakana - fish   taikai - expensive 
 
   Ano hito ha kakoii ne - That guy is cool isn't he ^_^ 
ano  - that   hito - person   kakoii - cool 
 
"nee"  is just "ne" but the "e" sound is held for a beat longer. see Segments for details. However if has a slightly different use. "nee" is used to emphasize something.. for example..
    Aozora ha kirei nee! - The blue sky so pretty isn't it!
aozorz - blue sky   kirei - pretty 
 
So "nee" is stronger than "ne", it's a little more passionate I think. -^_^-
 
Also for the rough and informal people :D, I will tell you about "na"!
Hehe, "na" has all the same uses as "ne" except it's informal ^_^ 
 
A guy once have me a very hard case agenst "na" and warning me of it's uses.. He
has never been to Osaka... Hehe, guys BE BOLD! use "na"! When your in Osaka you
need to use "na" or your not cool! >o< Don't waste your mind wonder what others
think. If your in Japan, people will appreciate the Japanese you know!
 
okonomiyaki ha sugoku oishii na! - okonomiyaku is very delicious isn't it? 
 sugoku - very    oishii - delicious
 
 
 
      ze/zo
 
Ze/zo are used in informal male speech, they come at the end
of a sentese and are used when emphasizing something.  If the sentense
ends with a noun there must be a "da", which is an informal "desu". 
It's also often used to inform someone something. EX
 
Gohan  wa dekita zo! - The food is ready! 
 
Pokemon getto da ze! - Get pokemon!