What are particles?
Dust in the air! duh...
!no no no!
^O^; Don’t fool around I’m teaching here!
Particles are little Japanese words that link words together that makes a sentence make sense.
wa(ha), ga, no, ni, de, to, mo,
ya, yo, o(wo),e(he), ka, ne/nee, ze/zo
If I write "ha" instead of "wa" its a habit.. it means the same thing though.
Understanding these particles will help you form sentences.
I will describe the particles as fully as I can.
*If you feel everything isn't translated completely, it's because the word was already defined on the page, or it's obvious. Look again!
When learning particles don't worry about the words you don't know of the tenses etc. Just be concerned on getting a feel for them. If there is anything you want be to explain, please email me.
Wa marks the topic. It always comes after the topic.
I like to think of wa as "is/am" etc.
It doesn't always work, but it's a huge help to think of it this way.
Remember when I was telling you how to introduce yourself?
In "greetings and introductions" I used "wa"
Watashi wa Sakura desu.
This means, " I am Sakura"
Onamae- Name, nan - what
Ga indicates "active" subjects
mimi ga itai desu- ear is hurting
Object + ga + verb
"ga" indicates that the ear is hurting
Often it seems that ga and wa can go in the same place. what happens then?
Questions words only work with ga, not wa
This word is easy, is shows possession, or to have a word describe another.
Watashi no neko desu - my cat
watashi- i watashi no - my neko - cat
This shows that i own the cat.
neko no hon desu - a book about cats
hon- book neko - cat
The word "neko" describes what kind of hon it is.
Describing word + no + word being described
Ni is a location marker it tells where something is, where something may go etc.
ex. Gakkou ni ikimasu Inu wa soto ni imasu
I will go to school. The dog "is" outside.
inu - dog soto - outside imasu - residing
Also ni can mark an indirect object.
ex. hanako san ni denwa shimashita
(I) called Ms Hanako on the phone.
De tell where something takes place.
koen de e o kakimashita - (I) drew a picture at the park
Koen - park kakimashita - drew e - picture
De marks the means of doing something
kuruma de gakkou ni ikimashita
I went to school by car
kuruma - car
Yo is used at the end of a sentence, it is used while responding to questions,
give new information, and to emphasize something.
Ex. Gakusei desu ka?- Are you a student?
Hai, gakusei desu yo - yes, I am a student.
Watashi wa nihon ni ikimashita yo - I went to
Ka is a particle that comes at the end of a sentence to make it a question.
Watashi wa neko desu ka? - Am I a cat?
Watashi - I Neko - cat
gakkou wa tanoshii desu ka? - Is school fun?
Gakkou - School Tanoshii - Fun